EASA language proficiency requirements are defined in Commission Regulation No 1178/2011, Part FCL - FCL.055.
Aeroplane, helicopter, powered-lift and airship pilots required to use the radio communication shall not exercise the privileges of their licences and ratings unless they have a language proficiency endorsement on their licence in either English or the language used for radio communications involved in the flight.
EASA implements and harmonizes ICAO language proficiency requirements on European level within European, so-called EASA airspace.
EASA language proficiency is required by Part-FCL and its FCL.055. EASA language proficiency requires all pilots - holders of aeroplane or helicopter EASA flight crew licenses - to be also holders of EASA language proficiency certificate. EASA does not currently specify the procedure of the language proficiency exam. It transfers the responsibility to national aviation authorities which define specific procedures required to acquire EASA language proficiency for pilots.
Language proficiency exam according to EASA requirements is regulated by bodies on national levels by domestic procedures and regulations, which are designed by the national aviation authorities or national regulatory bodies.
Language proficiency for Hot air balloon and glider pilots
ICAO language proficiency recommends that pilots of hot air balloons and gliders undergo language proficiency exam. EASA language proficiency does not however include this recommendation within its regulations and language proficiency exam of pilots of hot air balloons and gliders is solely optional.
Nevertheless, as the language proficiency exams are regulated by national aviation authority bodies on national levels. Some countries do require the language proficiency exams of hot air balloon/glider pilots as well. To fly in these countries, pilots must have the certificate that proves the ICAO language proficiency exam for the particular local language has been successfully passed.